The Difference Between 2D, 3D, and 4D Ultrasounds

Dr. Chad Hill

For more than 20 years, Dr. Chad Hill has served as owner and OB/GYN physician of Siloam Springs Women’s Center in Arkansas. In this capacity, Dr. Chad Hill provides women with a large range of services, including 3D and 4D ultrasounds.

Most people are familiar with 2D ultrasounds, the traditional technology that lets expectant parents see their baby as a black-and-white image and view its morphology and anatomy. While this type of ultrasound is important and still commonly used, many parents prefer 3D and 4D ultrasounds when viewing their growing child.

A 3D ultrasound, as evidenced by its name, shows a fetus in three dimensions. The technology used for this type of ultrasound relies on high-frequency sound waves and is just as safe to use as a 2D ultrasound. However, these sound waves are used at varying angles, allowing them to reflect off one another. As the waves reflect, the ultrasound machine interprets them to create a 3D image of a baby. The final image will not move, but the appearance of the baby in the ultrasound will look more realistic and life-like.

Meanwhile, a 4D scan shows the baby moving instead of just creating a still three-dimensional image. With a 4D scan, physicians are able to view the baby at different angles and determine whether there are any abnormalities in the fetus’ growth.

Although there is a benefit to getting a 3D and 4D ultrasound done, experts still don’t recommend either technology for getting a souvenir ultrasound. Completing a 3D or 4D scan exposes the fetus to more ultrasound than usual, and it is not clear what effects this may have.


Pap Smears – What They Are and How They Work

Siloam Springs Women’s Center pic
Siloam Springs Women’s Center

As owner-physician of Siloam Springs Women’s Center in Arkansas, Dr. Chad Hill offers treatment and preventive care for women with a range of gynecological and obstetrical concerns. Dr. Chad Hill offers a range of routine testing, including Pap smears.

The Papanicolau test, more commonly known as the Pap smear, is a common procedure that allows a gynecologist to screen for abnormal cells of the uterine cervix. Such cells can be an early sign of potential or developing cervical cancer, which currently stands as the fourth most common cause of death for women across the world. By using a Pap test to identify abnormal cells before they develop into advanced cancer, a gynecologist can offer early interventions that may be able to halt the progression of disease.

Experts recommend a Pap test for most women between the ages of 21 and 65, regardless of whether the woman is sexually active or has reached menopause. The American Cancer Society recommends that women in their 20s undergo testing every three years, which can extend to every 5 years once the woman has reached the age of 30. According to the officially released recommendations, after the age of 65, a woman may choose to stop having Pap tests if she has had three or more normal tests sequentially and no abnormal results over the course of 10 years.

Pelvic Exams

Siloam Springs Women’s Center pic
Siloam Springs Women’s Center

Dr. Chad Hill is a fellow of the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Moreover Dr. Chad Hill is the owner of Siloam Springs Women’s Center in Arkansas. He is also an OB/GYN at the center, where he carries out preventative care procedures such as pap smears and pelvic exams.

Once women are 21 years old, pelvic exams (which constitute part of their well-woman visits) become routine. In the lead up to a pelvic exam, a woman should inform the OB/GYN or nurse of any troublesome symptoms such as itching, abnormal discharge, or unusual bleeding to help determine whether an additional test or examination will be needed to identify the underlying condition.

During the pelvic exam, the medical professional examines the woman’s vagina, ovaries, cervix, uterus, and Fallopian tubes. A comprehensive exam involves the following: an external exam, a speculum exam, a bimanual exam, and a rectovaginal exam. On occasion, the pelvic exam incorporates a “pap smear” for cervical cancer screening. This involves the doctor or nurse taking a tiny sample of cells from the cervix and sending it to a lab for testing.

Study Links Insomnia with Female Infertility

Siloam Springs Women's Center pic
Siloam Springs Women’s Center

Since 1998, Dr. Chad Hill has co-owned the Siloam Springs Women’s Center in Arkansas and has served as an obstetrician/gynecologist there. In this capacity, Dr. Chad Hill has cared for many women struggling with infertility.

Over the years, data has indicated a potential link between sleep apnea and infertility. A recent study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Sleep, reveals that this connection may extend to other forms of sleep disorders.

The study, conducted by Dr. I-Duo Wang from the Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center in Taiwan, analyzed data from more than 16,700 women recently diagnosed with sleep disorders. The team compared the findings from this population with similar data from approximately 33,400 women without sleep issues.

Within a period of approximately five years, 29 participants diagnosed with sleep disorders had developed infertility, as compared to 34 participants in the larger group who slept normally. This translated to a risk of infertility that was 2.7 times higher in the sleep-disorder group, before accounting for age and other medical issues. After the research team adjusted for these factors, the participants with sleep disorders showed a risk of infertility 3.7 times higher than their counterparts.

Researchers note that findings from the study do not indicate causation, as the investigation was not a controlled experiment. More research is necessary to investigate the relationship between sleep disorders and infertility and to understand the impact of related factors, such as lifestyle choices, family medical history, and socioeconomic standing.